ephedra sinica stapf

International Plant Names Index. Ephedra sinica Stapf – Chinese ephedra Subordinate Taxa. Finally, 6M NaOH was added to the extract to adjust the pH to 11-13, and again 16 g of NaCl was added to remove salt to obtain ephedrine (see FIG. -, Wang J., van der Heijden R., Spruit S., Hankermeier T., Chan K., van der Greef J., Xu G., Wang M. Quality and safety of Chinese herbal medicines guided by a systems biology perspective. After saturating the organic solvent to form a chromatograph, 10% sulfuric acid prepared in a brown glass sprayer was evenly sprayed on a dried TLC plate and baked in an oven at 85 ° C. It was. 2020 Aug 18;3(1):466. doi: 10.1038/s42003-020-01190-y. Other Databases  [Detailed Description of the Invention]. (S)-cathinone reductase activities were detected in E. sinica stems capable of reducing (S)-cathinone to (1R,2S)-norephedrine and (1S,2S)-norpseudoephedrine in the presence of NADH. Innate immunity meets with cellular stress at the IKK complex: regulation of the IKK complex by HSP70 and HSP90. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -.  In other words, the present invention relates to a method for isolating the base component ephedrine from ephedra, and to a technique utilizing the new body's immune activity of the isolated material. Analysis of the peaks revealed that the mass and structure of the unknown isolate was ephedrine. Treatments in Other Floras @ www.efloras.org  2.  <6> ephedra 0¾aferfra sinica STAPF) is a perennial herb and is distributed mainly in northern China and Bongol and has a length of 30 ~ 70cm. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. It is thought to open the possibility as an effective therapeutic agent to prevent the transmission of virus to diseases such as pneumonia and sepsis. Ephedra sinica Stapf is a widely used Chinese medicinal plant (Chinese name: Ma Huang) to treat asthma, inflammation, immunosuppression in a long history. 1). Published online. In order to effectively obtain ephedrine from ephedra, the inventors of the present invention performed an ultra-high pressure process, and extracted with sulfuric acid and ethyl alcohol as a solvent in a fraction determined during fractionation without adding diethyl etherol as before. While ephedra extracts are cytotoxic to cultivated cells, the cytotoxicity is not primarily caused by ephedrine.Joyal 2004, Lee 2000 N-nitrosamines of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine have been found to be formed under physiological conditions. 草麻黄 cao ma huang Ephedra ma-huang Liu.. Subshrubs small, to 40 cm, sparsely branched; woody stems short or prostrate; branchlets straight or curved, sometimes slightly involute, internodes (2.5 … Doses of ephedra greater than 32 mg/day have resulted in adverse reactions.Andraws 2005, The pharmacokinetics of ephedra in humans have been studied, with ephedrine in crude herb requiring twice as long to reach the peak plasma concentration as pure ephedrine dosage forms.White 1997 Similarly, the combination of a single dose of ephedra and caffeine has been studied; ephedrine and pseudoephedrine had similar peak concentrations at 140 to 150 minutes, while caffeine blood levels peaked at 90 minutes. Advantageous Effects. It differs from var. Epub 2006 Jan 11. 1). It has been used medicinally for at least 5000 years in China and has been used in surrounding Asian countries like India for a very long time as well. Soni M.G., Carabin I.G., Griffiths J.C., Burdock G.A. Tetramethylpyrazine has been identified as a pharmacologically active constituent of stems, and analytical methods have been developed.Spyridaki 2001, Lv 2000, Zhao 2009 In the roots, which do not contain appreciable amounts of ephedrine alkaloids, feruloylhistamineHikino 1984 and ephedradines A-DHikino 1983, Tamada 1979 were isolated. It is characterized by having an anti-influenza virus effect. In addition, according to the process of the present invention, a variety of immunological experiments with ephedrine from ephedra by the practitioner derived basic data for the development of new immune-promoting food materials, which have not been reported before, thereby suggesting the possibility of practical use as a natural immune enhancer. A marked diversity in the ephedrine alkaloids content and stereochemical composition in 16 different E. sinica accessions growing under the same environmental conditions was revealed, indicating genetic control of these traits. Caractéristiques générales de la plante, des feuilles et des fleurs. Seed cones terminal or axillary, solitary, oblong-ovoid or subglobose, ca. That is, the process of obtaining ephedrine, a useful substance of ephedra, was simplified, and further, the yield improvement and new immune activity of ephedrine obtained through the isolation method were confirmed. Seeds usually 2, black-red or grayish brown, concealed by or equaling bracts. Ephedra Summary. Finally, 6M NaOH was added to the obtained product, adjusted to pH 11 13, and NaCl was added thereto. Of those trials included, the pooled data favored ephedra and ephedrine over placebo in the short-term (less than 6 months), with about 0.9 kg/month weight loss compared with placebo but with wide confidence limits.Shekelle 2003 Other reviews found similar results.Pittler 2005, Joyal 2004, Dwyer 2005, Dulloo 2002 The few trials that have been published since the 2004 ban on ephedra products came to similar conclusions, with enhanced thermogenesis proposed as the mechanism of action.Greenway 2001, Vukovich 2005 Whereas a variety of herbals (including ephedra) were shown to effectively decrease appetite and food intake in a 2009 systematic review of herbals used for management of obesity, significant adverse effects were reported only in studies using supplements containing ephedra and caffeine.Hasani-Ranjbar 2009 A more recent study in 7 volunteers attributed the weight loss activity of ephedra correlated to the changes in gut microbiota induced by ephedra consumption.Kim 2014, Activity against a limited range of viruses has been shown in some, but not all, in vitro studies.Soltan 2009, Murakami 2008, Lee 2010 Antimicrobial activity has been demonstrated in vitro by other Ephedra species (Ephedra strobiliacea, Ephedra procera, and Ephedra pachyclada spp. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Gas chromatography has been used, as well as chiral gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of both plant material and urine specimens.Cui 1991, Betz 1997, Li 2001, Spyridaki 2001 Numerous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been developedJian 1988, Moriyasu 1984, Gurley 1998, Hurlbut 1998, Li 2002, Hong 2011 including analysis of urine samplesGmeiner 2002 and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for dietary supplements.Gay 2001 Capillary electrophoresis and isotachophoresis also have been applied, with some methods using cyclodextrin as a matrix to resolve optically isomeric alkaloids.Kasahara 1985, Snopek 1988, Liu 1992, Liu 1993, Flurer 1995, Belder 2011 Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance also has been used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze ephedra alkaloids.Yamasaki 1979, Several systematic studies of alkaloid content in commercial ephedra samples have been conducted. Herbal medicines such as ephedra need to introduce ultra-high pressure that is different from the existing processing technology in order to obtain a bioactive substance due to its strong cell wall. Tropicos.org 2020. ).Parsaeimehr 2010, Ephedra extracts have shown anti-inflammatory and immune effects in experiments in rodents and in vitro studies.  The present invention is also characterized in that it is an immunoadjuvant containing an ephedrine obtained by the separation method as an active ingredient. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. In this situation, the present inventors have effectively isolated ephedrine from ephedra and further revealed its immune cell growth promoting and NK cell growth promoting activity. Pollen cones sessile or pedunculate, solitary or in clusters at nodes, rarely terminal; bracts in 4 pairs, margin very narrow, membranous, apex obtuse or subacute; anthers 7 or 8, sessile or shortly stipitate. Last updated on Aug 5, 2020. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. In comparison, E. sinica Stapf after processing provides relief to some degree.  <60>. In order to separate ephedrine from ephedra by this method, there was a complicated process involving three consecutive extractions with diethyl ether in addition to sulfuric acid addition, pH adjustment, and salt removal. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. Ref document number: Network pharmacology suggests biochemical rationale for treating COVID-19 symptoms with a Traditional Chinese Medicine. eCollection 2019. The ephedra alkaloids possess 2 adjacent chiral atoms that could generate 4 possible isomers for every planar structure; however, the plant produces only 2 of the possible isomers.Freudenberg 1932 Synthetic ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are usually produced as a racemate, and therefore contain all of the possible isomers. Fractional powder samples in solid phase were dissolved in KBr and the structure was analyzed by IR energy of 100 Hz. 10855047, Country of ref document: Ephedras are gymnosperms and are most closely related to conifers, although many aspects of their botany are different. Related Links. Fractional aliquots were dissolved in acetic acid 1 ^ to obtain the correct molecular weight of the eluted material and analyzed using vacuum MASS. The accessions can be classified into two groups according to the stereochemistry of the products accumulated: a group that displayed only 1R stereoisomers, and a group that displayed both 1S and 1R stereoisomers. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. Other types of compounds also have been isolated from ma huang. The present invention relates to a method for isolating ephedrine from Ephedra sinica Stapf, which is a representative medicinal herb, at a high yield, and to an adjuvant for enhancing immunity containing the ephedrine as an active ingredient. Overall results were similar to those of individual compounds in pure form.Haller 2002, Documented adverse reactions. EP, Kind code of ref document: NIH The record derives from WCSP (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name (record 333041) with original publication details: Bull. ... Nom latin Ephedra sinica Stapf, E. Famille EPHEDRACEAE; sinica in its very low growth habit, often curved or involute branches, shorter nodes, and seed cones with only 2 or 3 pairs of bracts. 4). In the present invention, an ultrahigh pressure extraction process is performed to obtain an effective bioactive substance from ephedra. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Scientific Name(s): Ephedra equisetina Bge., Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et Meyer, Ephedra sinica Stapf.Common Name(s): Ephedra, Ma huang, Pinellia, Yellow astringent, Yellow horse. The related Ephedra foemina and Ephedra foliata also lack ephedrine alkaloids and their metabolic precursors in their aerial parts. This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. Irritating and sweet ethyl ethers are widely used as solvents for bromine, iodine, most fats and resins, gasoline, pure rubber, and vegetable alkaloids. Keywords: M363 series. Ephedra consists of the dried aerial parts of Ephedra gerardiana Wall, Ephedra sinica Stapf, Ephedra equisetina Bunge, Ephedra nebrodensis Tineo and other Ephedra species, belonging to family Ephadreaceae. Measurement of immune cell growth. However, its use has been noted for patients with hypertension because it has a blood pressure-boosting effect. In addition, IR, NMR structural analysis and MASS molecular weight analysis of the obtained separation material is finally confirmed that the material separated by ephedrine. In the present invention, ephedrine is efficiently separated from ephedra, and then immune cells. A total of 6 major alkaloids of this type are found in the 3 species known as Ephedrae herba; the major alkaloid of all species is ephedrine, with pseudoephedrine the next most abundant, and norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and methylpseudoephedrine making up the balance.Jian 1988 The proportion of single alkaloids and total alkaloid content of the aboveground portions can vary widely, from 0.5% to 2.5%, with the highest concentration of alkaloids found in the fall. Ephedra-containing supplements are banned by the FDA, making data from animal studies for use as a weight-loss aid irrelevant. 1927. Pollination May-Jun, seed maturity Aug-Sep. 2n = 28*.  Example 1.  In order to obtain the desired active ingredient, 50 g of ephedra pulverized to a suitable size was extracted with an ultrahigh pressure extraction apparatus (Ilshin autoclave, Korea) using an extraction solvent as distilled water. Ephedra sinica Stapf; Ephedra sinica Stapf is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Ephedra (family Ephedraceae). variant amara Engl, Chemical composition and antitumor activity of different polysaccharides from the roots of Actinidia eriantha, Capsaicin production by Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus from Capsicum annum; LC–ESI–MS/MS analysis, Structural elucidation and immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharide isolated by subcritical water extraction from Cordyceps militaris, Microwave-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography purification of ferulic acid from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Composition comprising caffeoylshikimic acids, protocatechuic acid, hydroxytyrosol, hydroxybenzoic acid and their derivatives and method of preparation thereof, Integrative extract method of multi-active ingredient in cordyceps militaris mycelium, Preparation and use of triterpenoid sapogenin compounds extracted from bamboo, Chemical characterization and immunostimulatory effects of a polysaccharide from Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata in cyclophosphamide-induced anemic mice, A method for preparing low polar ginsenoside and aglucon thereof by catalytic pyrolysis, Flos Osmanthi Fragrantis polyphenol extract and its production and use, Comparison of the structural characterization and biological activity of acidic polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris cultured with different media, Underestimated sources of flavonoids, limonoids and dietary fiber: Availability in orange's by-products, Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application, Ep: pct application non-entry in european phase. Ephedra sinica, l'éphédra chinois ou ma huang, est une espèce de plantes gnétophytes (gymnospermes, classe des Equisetopsida) de la famille des Ephedraceae, originaire d'Asie de l'Est.. C'est un arbuste gracile poussant en bord de mer, qui contient des alcaloïdes à action sympathomimétique et qui est inscrit depuis des millénaires dans la pharmacopée chinoise pour ses … This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Thereafter, in order to separate and fractionate the ephedrine component that enhances the ephedra's immune activity, 0.5 MH 2 SO 4 and 99% ethyl alcohol were extracted for 10-14 hours using a nonpolar solvent extraction method to obtain a soluble fraction. Ephedra sinica. Supercritical extraction was performed at 3,000 3,500 psi. The cytotoxicity against human normal cell HEK293 was examined. Mice were divided into four groups: saline, saline plus heat, EH plus heat, and GF plus heat treated groups. traditional herbal medicines, Gnetophyta, e.g. 3, 12: 11. . IPNI. <86> [ι <87> Fig. Toxicological data are limited. Extracting the above extract with a 0.5M ¾SO. Ephedra sinica (also known as Chinese ephedra or Ma Huang) is a plant species native to Mongolia, Russia (Buryatiya, Chita, Primorye), and northeastern China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shanxi). Ephedra plants, including Ephedra sinica Stapf, Ephedra intermedia schrenk et C.A.  <78> Using Bruker Avance DPX 600 Mhz spectrometer (Germany) for structural analysis of the TLC spot of ephedra fraction obtained by the process according to the present invention — NMR (Magnetic resonance imaging) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) , Varian UI 500 MHz) spectra were obtained and the peaks were resolved and integrated using Win NMR software. Ultra high pressure is the principle of instantaneously and evenly transmitting the pressure of water or oil to the pressure medium by using the pressure of 100 ~ 1000 Mpa. Ephedra sinica Stapf – Chinese ephedra Subordinate Taxa. Anti-allergic agent (anti-allergic extract preparation method, Republic of Korea Patent Registration 10-0527912), anti-atopic agent (a composition for the prevention or treatment of atopic dermatitis, and preparation method thereof, Korea registration) Patent 10-0483539) and the like, but the separation of these immunoactive substances from ephedra is the first attempt in the field of yield enhancement and pure substance separation when applied to commercialization of the functional food and pharmaceutical materials of ephedra in the future It is expected to create new high added value and give high economic feasibility and preoccupy one field of biological business. Immune activities such as growth promotion and NK cell growth promotion were compared with conventional extracts. The largest increase was found to be 0.0085% (85.46 ± 0.42 / g / g). Leaves opposite, connate for 1/3-2/3 their length, free part subulate to narrowly triangular, to 5 mm, apex sharply pointed. 2. The use of ephedra-containing products in sports has been reported.Tokish 2004, Avois 2006, Dhar 2005 Few trials evaluating the ergogenic efficacy of ephedrine alone exist, and results suggest slight effects on performance.Tokish 2004, Shekelle 2003 However, combinations of ephedrine and caffeine have been reported to increase endurance in running and cycling experiments.Dhar 2005, Shekelle 2003 Most studies have been conducted by one groupBell 2001, Bell 2002 and because of the different types of exercise studied (endurance and power), the results cannot be pooled for analysis.Shekelle 2003 Because most classes of amphetamines are banned by the International Olympic Committee (except for medical use of ephedrine) and ephedra-containing supplements are banned by the FDA, further trials evaluating their efficacy are unlikely.Tokish 2004, Avois 2006.  Pseudoephedrine, ephedrine and norpseudoephedr ine were used as standard for comparative qualitative analysis of this study. By using the ultra-high pressure technology that can be most efficiently used for the extraction of chemical components of herbal medicines, the problems of high energy, low efficiency, heat denaturation and loss of useful components, and solubility-oriented extraction methods have been improved. Handl., ser. Since sulfuric acid acts as a catalyst for ethyl alcohol, ¾ alcohol is easily synthesized into ether 5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.03.019. Safety of ephedra: Lessons learned. More Accounts and Images; ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (EPSI3) Integrated Taxonomic Information System (EPSI3) Wildlife. As a weight loss agent, ephedra has been commonly combined with caffeine; however, more recently the ephedra component has been replaced with bitter orange in US dietary supplements.Lee 2011, Fu 2000, Chemical investigations of ephedra in the early 20th century resulted in the isolation of the alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which were identified as the major pharmacologically active compounds in the aboveground portions of the plant. Was intended. However, if the present invention obtains ephedrine, it is possible to synthesize diethyl ether by the direct reaction of solvent sulfuric acid and ethyl alcohol, thereby reducing the economic burden and reducing the time consumption, and in contrast to the complicated stepped process, The loss can be enjoyed, so the yield can be effectively increased. / By 100. Ephedra Summary.  <84> For specific mass spectrometry for ephedra useful materials, Autospec. Measurement of immune B cell growth,  <97> Experiment 2. Published on the internet. Regulatory effects of EH and GF for body temperature and weight against heat stress were mediated by IL-1β reduction. Dosages of ephedra more than 32 mg/day have resulted in adverse reactions. 1927: 133. Ephedra-containing dietary supplements are currently banned in the United States. N-nitrosoephedrine has been shown to be a carcinogen.Alwan 1986, Tricker 1987 Periconceptional use of ephedra-containing products has been associated with an increased adjusted odds ratio for anencephaly.Bitsko 2008. Composition and stereochemistry of ephedrine alkaloids accumulation in. -, Mei F., Xing X.F., Tang Q.F., Chen F.L., Guo Y., Song S., Tan X.M., Luo J.B. Antipyretic and anti-asthmatic activities of traditional Chinese herb-pairs, ephedra and gypsum. When diethyl ether is obtained through chemical reaction between sulfuric acid and ethyl alcohol in the fraction, the molecular formula is C 2 ¾0C 2 H 5 , which has a molecular structure with two ethyl groups centered on an oxygen atom. 6). Geographical Source . Subshrubs small, to 40 cm, sparsely branched; woody stems short or prostrate; branchlets straight or curved, sometimes slightly involute, internodes (2.5-)3-4(-5.5) cm × ca. Comparison of ephedrine yield of extracts. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay is a cellular protein by staining the experiment by measuring cell proliferation or toxicity of the target cells of human kidney normal cells HEK293 (in 10% FBS media) 4 ~ 5><10 4 , the concentration of 100 ^ of each well of 96 well piate with eel Is / ^ was incubated for 24 hours (37 V, 5% C0 2 ), and then the respective concentrations were 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 rag. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse events have been documented in case reports.  In addition, in the conventional extraction process, the sulfuric acid was extracted with a solvent for ephedra, and the salt was immediately removed. Posttreatment with ma-xing-shi-gan-tang, a Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung microvessel hyperpermeability and inflammatory reaction in rat.  |  The effect of enhancing immune function was verified using B cell (Raji), a human immune cell. Because of adverse events and lack of efficacy, use is not recommended for weight loss or increased athletic performance. Immunostimulatory effect of the cells was 1 ~ 2><10 4 eel ls / After adjusting the concentration, the sample was administered and cultured for 6 days, the cells of each well were counted by a hemacytometer to measure the number of cells. <7> The medical effects of ephedra include flu symptoms such as coughing and high fever. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). Effect of Ephedrae Herba methanol extract on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemic mice. Int J Nanomedicine. Secondly, it relieves cough and high fever, which are representative symptoms of the flu.  The present invention relates to a method of isolating ephedrine (ephedrine) in a high yield from a representative stem medicinal herb ephedra 0¾¾ei / ra sinica Stapf) and an immunoadjuvant containing the ephedrine as an active ingredient. Although the components of the compounds suspected of having immune enhancing activity from ephedra have been reported to date, studies on their obtaining method have been insignificant. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. Salminen A, Paimela T, Suuronen T, Kaarniranta K. Immunol Lett. Commun Biol. HHS The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in thermal homeostasis. Ma Huang. Not only was the process complicated, but the re-extraction of ephedra would have to be repeated several times, resulting in a high economic burden and extraction time to obtain the required solvents. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, alerts, new drug approvals and more. Complement activation was inhibited and E. sinica showed protective effects against sequelae of spinal cord injury in one experiment.Li 2009 Chemical constituents ephedrannin A and B suppressed the transcription of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta in macrophages and in induced hepatic failure in mice.Kim 2010, Yamada 2008 Ephedra constricted isolated rabbit urethra tissue, possibly via arachidonic acid pathways, and alpha-adrenoreceptor stimulation in another laboratory experiment.Ayajiki 2008, There is a ban on the sale of all ephedra-containing dietary supplements in the United States.

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